The 21st century media have not only become luring and flexible, but also vulnerable. The presence of digital or new media became a huge player in the media industry. With this, media were able to (up to a certain extent) converge countries, transcend classes, and evolve itself from an information and entertainment platform to a marketplace of ideas, talents, and products–even a marketplace of ourselves, the netizens

More than this, social media spurred various political movements and rapid online wars. Amid clashing political views, increasing cybertrolls, disinformation, viral videos, hashtag campaigns–social media is one galaxy of negativity and positivity. And navigating our way in the midst of all these tempting wealth of materials is not a walk in the park.

Since our entry into the 21st century, the challenge has evolved: to be well-educated not only in our consumption but also in our own creation of media. We need a brand of education that will enable individuals to 1) critically analyze messages that they receive and 2) express themselves by producing their own alternative media content effectively and responsibly.

Media Literacy answers this need. Apart from enabling individual empowerment, it will allow the formation of a progressive and democratic society which proactively responds to pertinent issues.

Out of The Box envisions Filipino students, as young as they are, to be careful, relevant, and critical of their environment plagued with social constructs, misrepresentations, and false consciousness. Now, more than ever, we are faced with the task of being literate beyond the 3R tradition (reading, writing, and arithmetic). Either you take a step back or move in closer to your TV screens, newspapers, or mobile phones; it is time to look, think, write, read, watch, listen out of the box!

What is Media Literacy?

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Center for Media Literacy (CML)

Media Literacy is a 21st century approach to education.

It provides a framework to access, analyze, evaluate and create messages in a variety of forms – from print to video to the Internet.

Media literacy builds an understanding of the role of media in society as well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression necessary for citizens of a democracy.

Media literacy, therefore, is about helping students become competent, critical and literate in all media forms so that they control the interpretation of what they see or hear rather than letting the interpretation control them. To become media literate is not to memorize facts or statistics about the media, but rather to learn to raise the right questions about what you are watching, reading or listening to.

Key Questions and Core Concepts

  1. Who created this message?
  2. What techniques are used to attract my attention?
  3. How might different people understand this message differently from me?
  4. What lifestyles, values and points of view are represented in, or omitted from, this message?
  5. Why was this message sent?

  1. All media messages are ‘constructed.’
  2. Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules.
  3. Different people experience the same media message differently.
  4. Media have embedded values and points of view.
  5. Most media messages are organized to gain power.

National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE)

Media literacy is the ability to ACCESS, ANALYZE, EVALUATE, and COMMUNICATE information in a variety of forms. Media literacy represents a necessary, inevitable, and realistic response to the complex, ever-changing electronic environment and communication that surround us.

Hence, media literacy empowers people to be both critical thinkers and creative producers of an increasingly wide range of messages using image, language, and sound. It is also the skillful application of literacy skills to media and technology messages.

On #CriticalMediaLiteracy: Douglas Kellner and Jeff Share

Critical media literacy is an educational response that expands the notion of literacy to include different forms of mass communication, popular culture, and new technologies. It deepens the potential of literacy education to critically analyze relationships between media and audiences, information, and power. Along with this mainstream analysis, alternative media production empowers students to create their own messages that can challenge media texts and narratives.

An excerpt from “Critical media literacy is not an option”, 2007

Video Resources

MIL in Action: Marlon Nombrado of Benedictine International School

MIL in Action: Ms. Gemma Soneja of Parang High School

MIL in Action: Sir Arniel Ping of St. Stephen's High School

It's Lit #2: Pride Recap

It's Lit #1: Ads To Sum Up


How to Spot Fake News


How to Stop the Spread of Fake News


Journalists on Media Bias










Teachers on Media Literacy

Students on Media Literacy


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